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This time also saw the rise of video game journalism, which was later expanded to include covermounted cassettes and CDs.In 1983, the North American industry crashed due to the production of too many badly developed games (quantity over quality), resulting in the fall of the North American industry.
In 1987, Nintendo lost a legal challenge against Blockbuster Entertainment, which enabled games rentals in the same way as movies.Between the 1950s and 1960s, with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges, students and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe. , developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanen.That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey.Game development for mobile phones (such as i OS and Android devices) and social networking sites emerged.For example, a Facebook game developer, Zynga, has raised in excess of 0 million.Many early publicly-available interactive computer-based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display; while technically not "video games", they had elements of interactivity between the player and the machine. and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a "cathode ray tube amusement device".
Some examples of these included the 1940 "Nimatron", an electromagentic relay-based Nim-playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World's Fair, The development of cathode ray tube—the core technology behind televisions—created several of the first true video games. Their game, which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display, challenges players to fire a gun at target.Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include: game programmer, game designer, level designer, game producer, game artist and game tester.Most of these professionals are employed by video game developers or video game publishers.Though not the main driving force, indie games continue to have a significant impact on the industry, with sales of some of these titles such as Spelunky, Fez, Don't Starve, Castle Crashers, and Minecraft, exceeding millions of dollars and over a million users.The 2010s have seen a larger shift to casual and mobile gaming; in 2016, the mobile gaming market is estimated to have taken billion in revenues, compared to billion for the console market and billion for personal computing gaming.Games developed by a single programmer, or by a small team of programmers and artists, could sell hundreds of thousands of copies each.